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Conformal Cooling: What it is and Why to Use It

conventional and conformal cooling designs in molds

Conformal cooling improves plastic molding through precision-engineered cooling channels. Most of these channels correspond to part geometries, so the cooling effectiveness is much higher. This approach reduces production time by 70%, thus improving productivity and product quality. Compared to conventional cooling practices that employ straight channels that frequently bypass complex areas, conformal cooling provides uniform and efficient heat management.

What readers will learn?

This paper will inform readers about the advantages of conformal cooling over, for example, traditional methods. It offers information on the technology, material selection, economic evaluation, and barriers to the implementation of this modern manufacturing methodology.

Understanding Conformal Cooling:

What is Conformal Cooling?

It is a creative technique applied in plastic molding. It incorporates customized cooling channels into molds. These channels are in close alignment with the outline of the parts molded. This layout guarantees homogeneous and properly functioning cooling, which decreases the production time significantly. Such developments call for more research into their advantages and uses.

Conformal Cooling vs. Traditional Cooling Techniques:

  1. Targeted Cooling Design:
  • Conformal cooling brings a special benefit with channels that match the part geometries.
  • This accuracy results in uniform and effective cooling.
  • Meanwhile, traditional systems contain the same and uniform channels that do not reach all areas sufficiently.
  1. Enhanced Production Efficiency:
  • Conformal cooling adoption is a great tool for manufacturers to achieve substantial cycle time reductions.
  • The decreases vary from 10% to 70% in a range, which is much more than the traditional methods.
  • This effectiveness directly results in higher output and lower production costs.
  1. Improved Product Quality:
  • Uniform cooling enabled by conformal designs prevents warping and defects.
  • The hot spots that are left by the traditional methods may lead to variations in the finished products.
  • Quality products have lower rejects, which attracts quality industries.
  1. Energy and Resource Savings:
  • Better cooling leads to the decreased energy required per production cycle.
  • It also results in cost savings, as well as an environmentally-friendly image.
  • With traditional cooling, more time and energy are usually needed, making the operating costs higher.

This novel technique encourages manufacturers to reconsider their cooling strategies and even improve them for better results.

Comparison of conformal cooling and traditional cooling

The Technology Behind Conformal Cooling:

Advanced conformal cooling technology for improved mold desig

DMLS is the leader in producing conformal cooling channels. This 3D printing technology aligns cooling channels with mold counter shapes accurately. It forms intricate inner structures that are not possible with traditional cooling methods. In this way, DMLS guarantees the same effective cooling for all parts. Other techniques, such as vacuum brazing and liquid interface diffusion, while technically possible, are not as economical as DMLS.

3D metal printing is the most suitable method for high-volume runs because of its cost-effectiveness and precision. This approach not only improves the consistency of part cooling but also boosts general manufacturing efficiency. 3D metal printing is revolutionizing mold design, with changes in terms of quality and operational costs. DMLS is the technology of choice for conformal cooling and sets a new level in mold manufacturing, thus fostering innovation and sustainability in production operations.

How does conformal cooling function?

Conformal cooling functions to control mold temperatures using specially designed channels. These channels carry a selected coolant, either liquid or gas, according to the requirements of the particular production process. Liquid coolants are usually used with heat-sensitive materials or when quick changeovers are required.

Usually, water is the coolant, but in high-temperature conditions, oil is used to avoid boiling. In such materials, air and other gases provide adequate, although less effective than liquids, cooling. In very cold conditions, a water-ethylene glycol mix serves as the prevention from freezing. This specific cooling method improves product quality and cycle efficiency in the manufacturing processes.

Advantages of Conformal Cooling:

Following are some benefits of conformal cooling.

  • Reduced Cycle Times: Conformal cooling highly reduces the longest process of injection molding by improving the cooling capacity.
  • Higher Quality Parts: Consistent mold cooling minimizes defects and warping, thus providing better parts quality.
  • Material Efficiency: Consumes less raw material in comparison to conventional cooling methods because of the designed mold.
  • Improved Thermal Management: Conformal cooling channels are accurately developed to fit the topology of the part, which results in solving the heat distribution problem and reducing temperature differentials that are so important to industries where component reliability is crucial.
  • Reduced Waste: Constant temperatures prevent material warp and distortion, improving the quality of the part and reducing the defects produced.
  • Cost Efficiency: Uniform temperature control in conformal cooling channels increases the speed of manufacturing. This effectiveness cuts down the operational costs, including energy usage and wastage.
  • Advanced Manufacturing Compatibility: It allows the production of complex conforming cooling channels effectively. However, the traditional methods consider these designs expensive and difficult. This compatibility with contemporary methods also enables the development of complex parts in different thicknesses.

All these benefits together make conformal cooling a desirable alternative for boosting the efficiency and quality of injection molded parts, especially in high-volume or complex production situations.

Material Considerations for Conformal Cooling Inserts:

The conformal cooling inserts are made from a variety of materials that have been chosen for particular manufacturing requirements. Critical to their functionality, these materials must have high thermal conductivity for proper heat transfer.

  • Material Diversity: The range consists of steel, aluminum, and related products, each with distinctive characteristics. These materials enable advanced technologies such as direct metal laser sintering, which is vital in manufacturing complex cooling channels.
  • Properties for Performance: The choice of materials changes to suit different thermal and mechanical requirements depending on the type of production context. High thermal conductivity is required for quick heat removal, while structural strength helps to withstand such manufacturing stresses. Such materials as maraging steel are known for their strength and heat resistance.
  • Specific Application Needs: The complexity of the part and the specific requirements of the application environment affect the choice of material. In the aerospace and automotive sectors, materials must withstand high temperatures and dynamic stresses.
  • Additive Manufacturing Advancements: The development of new materials in the additive manufacturing process has increased the range of materials, improving mold design flexibility. These changes facilitate the development of cooling solutions that are more user-friendly and cost-effective, as they can be tailored to the specified production requirements.

The proper choice of materials for conformal cooling inserts goes beyond the efficient production processes. It also improves the part quality and productivity.

Cost Analysis:

Below is the cost analysis of conformal cooling.

  • Initial Setup Costs: Conformal cooling has higher upfront costs because of the advanced additive manufacturing techniques required, which include Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Using these technologies, complex custom-shaped cooling channels can be created that closely follow the part geometry. Conventional cooling, which employs simple and cheap drilling techniques to make straight channels, is not able to achieve such customization.
  • Operational Costs: Conformal cooling, although carrying a higher setup cost, can generate substantial savings in operational costs. This efficiency is achieved through the reduction of cycle times by up to 70% and the capability of the system to offer more uniform cooling. The uniformity also reduces scrap rates and defects, thus leading to higher quality outputs and less material wastage.
  • Comparison with Traditional Methods: These methods are, however, less efficient over time, even though they are cheaper in the beginning. They tend to be ineffective in cooling complex part geometries, which results in longer cycle times and more product defects. Although its initial cost is higher when being used for high-volume production or complex geometrical parts, it may turn out to be a beneficial investment because of its long-term cost efficiency and quality improvement.

Conformal Cooling Limitations:

Here are the following Limitations of conformal cooling:

  • Complex Design Phase: Optimizing conformal cooling molds is a lengthy process. This process of designing is more sophisticated and time-consuming than classical approaches.
  • Size Limitations: The part size is limited by the size of the printer bed. This constrains the largest size of molds that can be manufactured using conformal cooling technology.
  • Higher Mold Costs: Conformal cooling molds tend to be more expensive to produce. In low-volume manufacturing environments, the justification of these costs becomes more problematic.
  • Challenges with Channel Maintenance: The narrowness and length of cooling channels pose a challenge. It is usually difficult to remove the support materials from these channels, and the wrong cleaning can result in blockages.
  • Risk of Scaling: Complex channel designs can suffer from scaling, a process where mineral particles clog up the channels and reduce their carrying capacity, which in turn weakens their stability. These leaks may cause poor performance of the entire mold.


Conformal cooling is a big step in the injection molding, giving improved productivity and quality. This approach not only reduces the time of production but also improves the quality and integrity of final products by incorporating cooling channels that are designed with high precision and align with part geometries.

These advanced techniques are highly employable by HiTop Industrial, a premier in injection molding services, ensuring excellent outcomes in high-volume production contexts. Using conformal cooling, HiTop Industrial is the benchmark for waste, energy and operational cost reduction in the industry.

Discover more of our state-of-the-art solutions, and we can transform your processes by visiting the website. Contact us today.

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